Spatial clusters can be identified using a number of different techniques. One common technique is to calculate the Moran’s I and to explore Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA). The ArcGIS Spatial Statistics toolbox and GeoDa have the capabilities of calculating and mapping these measures. The example below explores spatial clusters in unemployment across the U.S. over time.
The charts below illustrate the clustering of family poverty in the US, across counties.
The following example focuses on unemployment rates in 1990.
Clustering of behavior is also evident in voting. The following example explores results from the 2016 election.